Molecular Creation (logo) A Story of Natural Molecular Evolution from Atoms and Water to the living Cell

IN THE BEGINNING

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Atoms and Molecules

Based on astronomical studies, it is believed that space within the emerging universe contained Hydrogen Nuclei (Protons), with a mass of 1 and a charge of +1, and Electrons, with little mass and a charge of -1. As oppositely-charged entities, they combined to form Hydrogen Atoms with the negative electron circling the positive proton. But the electron not only circled the proton, it had spin of its own and coupled with the spin of the electron in another hydrogen atom to form a Hydrogen Molecule, H2.

In the beginning, protons and electrons are believed to have combined electronically and by fusion to produce (create) hydrogen, oxygen and all other atoms.

Although these primordial hydrogens were light with little mass, gravitational forces drew them together so tightly in space that outer electrons were ripped away and their nuclear cores fused to yield heavier Helium Atoms - suns and stars were formed with the release of tremendous amounts of energy (E = mc2). However, as the store of hydrogen fuel within the suns declined, they began to collapse. Hydrogen and helium, once again, became compressed with such incredible forces that electrons were ripped away and massive Super Nova events occurred - small nuclei were compressed into more massive forms like Oxygen, Nitrogen, Carbon and Iron which were discharged into space to combine with electrons and yield new atoms and new gaseous molecules: Oxygen O2, Nitrogen N2, Methane CH4, Water H2O and Ammonia NH3.

Atoms of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen then combined to produce simple gaseous molecules, like hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, water, ammonia and formaldehyde.

Atoms and molecules which had never existed before were brought into being by these two basic processes of nuclear fusion and electron spin coupling. Of all the molecules produced in these celestial explosions, those of water possessed the unique symmetrical structural feature of bonding two positively-charged protons as hydrogen atoms at two corners of an oxygen atom with two negatively-charged electron pairs at the other corners.

Hydrogen-Bonding and Ice

With positive charges on one side and negative on the other, water molecules are like small magnets, attracting each other and, periodically, joining their charge centers to form Point-Charge Hydrogen Bonds which hold them more tightly together.

Water molecules were unique in having symmetrical positive and negative charges on their surfaces which caused them to form hydrogen bonds with each other.

Thus, as water molecules, with two positively-charge protons on two corners and two negatively-charged electron pairs on the other two corners formed clusters and hydrogen-bonds between positive surface protons and negative electron pairs.

Thus, as water molecules soared through the coldness of space with other gaseous molecules, they joined together: first to form extended chains, then to form two-dimensional hexagonal forms, then to produce three-dimensional lattices of solid ice with all of the molecules in linear elements.

As they soared through space, they produced linear elements, two-dimensional hexagonal units and then three-dimensional, “cubic ice,” composed completely of linear elements.

But the ice which formed in space at those extremely cold temperatures was not the same as that which forms on earth. Some of the ice was amorphous, with no orderly crystalline form, but much of it was Cubic Ice which forms most rapidly as water molecules hydrogen-bond together with Covalent Hydrogen Bonds.6,26 As snowflakes form in the upper atmosphere at temperatures below zero, the molecules assemble as linear elements in a cubic lattice - the same as they do in outer space. But, as they fall to earth, the molecules gain energy and rearrange to produce the more stable spatial form with which we are more familiar: Hexagonal Ice.27

However, cubic ice is unstable and, as it warms toward 0oC, it isomerizes to produce the more stable “hexagonal” form with less linearity and hexagonal units over each other.

In hexagonal ice, molecules in the horizontal planes are in linear elements but they have rearranged diagonally to position the hexagonal units above each other in a thermodynamically more stable arrangement. Since covalent linear elements and cubic ice form most rapidly as water molecules hydrogen bond together, their formation on surfaces was extremely important as molecules began to evolve.11

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